The Science of Dreams: What Do They Mean and Why Do We Need Them?

The Science of Dreams: What Do They Mean and Why Do We Need Them?

Dreams have captivated humanity for centuries, with their bizarre narratives, vivid imagery, and seemingly profound symbolism. From ancient civilizations to modern psychology, dreams have been interpreted as divine messages, windows into the unconscious mind, and even glimpses into parallel universes. However, the true purpose and meaning of dreams remain a subject of ongoing scientific inquiry and debate.

What Are Dreams?

Before delving into the potential meanings and functions of dreams, it's essential to understand what dreams are. Dreams are a series of thoughts, images, and sensations that occur during certain stages of sleep, primarily during the rapid eye movement (REM) stage[1]. During REM sleep, brain activity is heightened, and the brain processes information in a way that is distinct from waking consciousness.

While we sleep, our brains are still active, but our thoughts or dreams often lack the logical coherence we experience when awake. This may be because the emotional centers of the brain trigger dreams, rather than the logical regions, resulting in surreal and sometimes nonsensical experiences.

Do Dreams Have Meaning?

The question of whether dreams have meaning has long been debated by psychologists, philosophers, and scientists. Some experts believe that dreams are merely random electrical brain impulses that occur during sleep, while others argue that dreams serve a particular purpose and hold significant meaning.

Theories That Dreams Have Meaning

Freud's Theory of Unconscious Wish Fulfillment[2]

One of the most influential theories on the meaning of dreams comes from the pioneering psychologist Sigmund Freud. Freud believed that dreams were a manifestation of repressed desires and unconscious wishes that the dreamer could not express in waking life.

According to Freud, the dreaming brain creates a "manifest dream" from fragments of everyday images, experiences, and memories. However, this manifest dream is a symbolic representation of the "latent dream," which contains the dreamer's true, unconscious desires. The bizarre and seemingly nonsensical nature of dreams is a result of the unconscious mind's attempt to conceal these desires through symbolism and distortion.

Jung's Theory of Compensation and Self-Portrayal[3]

Carl Jung, another influential psychologist, had a different perspective on the meaning of dreams. Jung believed that dreams could help individuals become aware of aspects of themselves that they had not yet fully acknowledged or integrated.

For example, if a person has a lighthearted relationship with their partner but feels that something deeper is missing, they might dream about mundane activities like browsing housing listings or walking through a park. Jung would interpret this dream as the dreamer's unconscious desire for a more profound and thoughtful connection with their partner.

Jung also believed that dreams could serve a compensatory function, helping to balance out aspects of the dreamer's personality or life that were lacking or underdeveloped.

Other Theories

Other dream researchers have offered their own interpretations of the meaning of dreams[4]: 

  • Calvin S. Hall considered dreams a part of the cognition process, offering insight into how individuals view themselves, their problems, and the world around them.
  • George Lakoff believed that dreams provided a metaphorical glimpse into daily challenges and life events, with abstract symbols representing real hardships.
  • Rosalind Cartwright tied dreams to significant life events and emotional experiences, suggesting that dreams play a role in cognitive processes like memory and emotion regulation. 
  • G. William Domhoff connected dreams to daily experiences and emotional mindsets, while acknowledging that dreams might not have a clear purpose since most are forgotten. 
  • William Dement, a pioneer in sleep medicine, suggested that while dreams may lack a clear purpose, they can still convey meaningful messages.

Theories That Dreams Have No Meaning

Not all experts believe that dreams have a deeper meaning or serve a specific purpose. Some theories propose that dreams are simply byproducts of brain activity during sleep, with no inherent significance.

Threat Simulation Theory[5]

The threat simulation theory suggests that dreams serve an evolutionary purpose by allowing individuals to practice identifying and responding to potential threats in a safe, simulated environment. By confronting and overcoming these threats in their dreams, individuals may feel better prepared to handle real-life challenges.

A study in 2009 found some support for this theory by comparing the dreams of children who had experienced trauma with those who had not. Traumatized children tended to have more threatening dreams, potentially reflecting their heightened sense of fear and insecurity in waking life[5][6].

Activation-Synthesis Theory[7]

According to the activation-synthesis theory, dreams are nothing more than a collection of random images and thoughts generated by normal brain activity during sleep. The bizarre and nonsensical nature of dreams is attributed to the brain's inability to create a coherent narrative from these random neural impulses.

Supporters of this theory believe that the strangeness of dreams arises from the brain's attempt to make sense of these disconnected images and thoughts after waking up.

Dreams as Emotional Regulation

Some experts have theorized that dreams may serve as a means of emotional regulation. During REM sleep, the parts of the brain responsible for regulating emotion and memory are active, while the chemical messenger noradrenaline, which can produce feelings of anxiety or stress, is suppressed.

This combination of factors may allow individuals to confront and process unpleasant or unwanted emotions in a safe and controlled environment, potentially helping them cope with these emotions more effectively in their waking lives.

Continual-Activation Theory[8]

The continual-activation theory proposes that dreams are essentially a byproduct of the brain's efforts to maintain activity and process information during sleep. As the conscious part of the brain becomes less active during sleep, the unconscious brain sends a stream of data from memory storage to keep the conscious brain functioning.

According to this theory, dreams are the manifestation of this data flow, acting as a sort of "screensaver" for the conscious brain while it is not actively engaged in processing external stimuli.

Common Dream Themes and Their Potential Meanings

While the broader purpose and meaning of dreams remain a subject of debate, certain dream themes and experiences seem to recur across cultures and generations. Many people have attempted to interpret the potential significance of these common dream scenarios.

Here are some examples of common dream themes and their proposed meanings[9]:

  • Cheating on a partner: This dream may indicate that the dreamer feels their needs are not being met in the relationship or that they feel trapped in another area of their life.
  • Partner cheating: This dream could reflect the dreamer's fear of losing their partner or a more general fear of rejection in their waking life. 
  • Failing a test: This dream may symbolize the dreamer's stress and feelings of being unprepared to handle a particular challenge or situation. 
  • Public embarrassment or nudity: These dreams may represent the dreamer's sense of vulnerability and concern over others noticing their flaws or imperfections.
  • Finding money or treasure: These dreams could signify a sense of confidence, self-worth, and positive self-image in the dreamer. 
  • Missing a bus or train: This dream may reflect frustration with the dreamer's everyday life and a feeling of lacking something important. 
  • Losing teeth: This dream could represent the dreamer's anxieties about aging or insecurities regarding how they are perceived by others. 
  • Discovering new rooms: This dream may symbolize the dreamer's discovery of new abilities, interests, or future possibilities for themselves. 
  • Falling: This dream could indicate a sense of lack of support from loved ones or a feeling of losing control over some aspect of the dreamer's life. 
  • Dying: This dream may represent the dreamer's concerns about unwelcome changes or uncertainties about the future.

It's important to note that these interpretations are generalizations, and the true meaning of a dream may vary depending on the individual's unique life experiences, emotions, and personal symbolism.

Why Do We Dream?

Beyond the potential meanings of dreams, researchers have also explored the underlying reasons for why we dream in the first place. While there is no universally accepted explanation, several theories have been proposed to explain the purpose and function of dreaming.

Dreams as Therapists

One theory suggests that dreams serve as a form of therapy, allowing individuals to confront and process emotional dramas and challenges in their lives. During sleep, the brain operates at a more emotional level than when awake, enabling it to make connections and insights that the conscious mind might overlook or suppress.

Dreams as Fight-or-Flight Training

The amygdala, the part of the brain associated with the survival instinct and the fight-or-flight response, is more active during dreaming than in waking life. Some researchers believe that this heightened activity may be the brain's way of preparing individuals to deal with potential threats, providing a form of rehearsal or training for dangerous situations.

Dreams as Muses

Another theory suggests that dreams facilitate our creative tendencies. Artists of all kinds, from writers and painters to musicians and filmmakers, have credited dreams as sources of inspiration for their creative works. Without the logical filters and restrictions we impose on our thoughts during waking life, the unbridled creativity unleashed during dreams may allow for unique ideas and perspectives to emerge.

Dreams as Memory Aides[10]

One widely held theory proposes that dreams play a crucial role in memory storage and consolidation. Research has shown that sleep is essential for effective memory formation, and dreams may be a part of this process. During dreaming, the brain may sort through and organize important memories and information, while discarding irrelevant or unimportant details.

Dreams may help the brain store significant information more efficiently by blocking out external stimuli that could interfere with memory and learning processes. Additionally, dreams may assist in integrating newly acquired knowledge with existing memories, facilitating better recall and understanding.

How to Remember Your Dreams

One of the greatest challenges in exploring the meaning and purpose of dreams is the difficulty in recalling them. The brain chemical associated with memory, norepinephrine, and the brain's electrical activity that aids in recall are at their lowest levels during dreaming. As a result, if you don't wake up during a dream, you are unlikely to remember it.

However, there are strategies that can help improve dream recall[11]:
  1. Set an intention: Before falling asleep, tell yourself that you want to remember your dreams. This conscious intention may prime your mind to be more receptive to retaining dream memories. 
  2. Wake up gently: Dream recall can be easily interrupted by even the slightest distraction. If you wake up abruptly or immediately engage in other activities, you may lose the fleeting memory of your dream. Instead, try to lie still and focus on recalling as many details as possible before moving or shifting your attention. 
  3. Keep a dream journal: As soon as you wake up, grab a notebook or your smartphone and write down as much as you can remember about your dream. Documenting your dreams immediately can help solidify the memories before they fade.
  4. Identify dream signs: Pay attention to recurring elements, symbols, or themes in your dreams. These "dream signs" can act as anchors, helping you recognize when you are dreaming and potentially improving your ability to recall the experience upon waking. 

While the true nature and purpose of dreams may remain elusive, the act of remembering and reflecting on our dream experiences can provide valuable insights into our subconscious thoughts, emotions, and personal narratives.


The science of dreams is a vast and intricate field, spanning disciplines from neuroscience and psychology to philosophy and anthropology. While experts continue to debate the deeper meanings and functions of dreams, it is clear that dreaming is an integral part of the human experience.

Whether dreams serve as outlets for repressed desires, rehearsals for real-life challenges, creative muses, or simply byproducts of brain activity, their captivating and sometimes enigmatic nature has captivated humanity for centuries.

As our understanding of sleep, cognition, and the inner workings of the brain continues to evolve, so too will our appreciation for the role that dreams play in shaping our thoughts, emotions, and experiences. By embracing the science of dreams and exploring their potential meanings, we may unlock new insights into the depths of the human mind and the mysteries of our unconscious selves.


[1] Glucksman, M L. “The dream: a psychodynamically informative instrument.” The Journal of psychotherapy practice and research vol. 10,4 (2001): 223-30. 

[2] Guénolé, Fabian et al. “Do dreams really guard sleep? Evidence for and against Freud's theory of the basic function of dreaming.” Frontiers in psychology vol. 4 17. 30 Jan. 2013, doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00017 

[3] Zhu, Caifang. “Jung on the nature and interpretation of dreams: a developmental delineation with cognitive neuroscientific responses.” Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland) vol. 3,4 662-675. 22 Nov. 2013, doi:10.3390/bs3040662 

[4] “Hall: A Cognitive Theory of Dreams.”, 2024, 

[5] Valli, Katja et al. “The threat simulation theory of the evolutionary function of dreaming: Evidence from dreams of traumatized children.” Consciousness and cognition vol. 14,1 (2005): 188-218. doi:10.1016/S1053-8100(03)00019-9

[6] Valli, Katja, and Antti Revonsuo. “The threat simulation theory in light of recent empirical evidence: a review.” The American journal of psychology vol. 122,1 (2009): 17-38. 

[7] Hobson, J A, and R W McCarley. “The brain as a dream state generator: an activation-synthesis hypothesis of the dream process.” The American journal of psychiatry vol. 134,12 (1977): 1335-48. doi:10.1176/ajp.134.12.1335 

[8] Zhang, Jie. “Continual-Activation Theory of Dreaming.” ResearchGate, unknown, 2005,

[9] Li, Yuhang et al. “The relationship between typical dreams and mental health of residents in village-in-city.” Sleep medicine: X vol. 6 100081. 14 Jul. 2023, doi:10.1016/j.sleepx.2023.100081 

[10] Zhang, Jing et al. “Evidence of an active role of dreaming in emotional memory processing shows that we dream to forget.” Scientific reports vol. 14,1 8722. 15 Apr. 2024, doi:10.1038/s41598-024-58170-z 

[11] Dal Sacco, Diego. “Dream recall frequency and psychosomatics.” Acta bio-medica : Atenei Parmensis vol. 93,2 e2022046. 11 May. 2022, doi:10.23750/abm.v93i2.11218

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